März Die Welt verliert eines der größten Physikgenies aller Zeiten: Stephen Hawking ist gestorben. Wir zeigen dir seine wichtigsten Zitate: über den. März Stephen Hawking verstand es wie wenige Wissenschaftler, seine Weltsicht und komplizierte Theorien verständlich und prägnant zu. März Stephen Hawing war unumstritten ein Genie. Seine berühmtesten Zitate wurden von einem Computer vorgelesen, aber stammten von einem.
Das macht uns zu etwas sehr Besonderem. Zu fragen, was vor dem Beginn des Universums war, ist so sinnlos wie die Frage: Auch wenn ich mich nicht bewegen kann und ich durch einen Computer sprechen muss, in meinem Kopf bin ich frei.
Anders als unser Intellekt verdoppeln Computer ihre Leistung alle 18 Monate. Wir haben das Leben nach unserem eigenen Bild geschaffen. Die Wissenschaft wird gewinnen, denn sie funktioniert.
Meine Erwartungen wurde als ich 21 war auf null reduziert. That may be so, but it could also have made it evolve in a completely arbitrary and random manner.
Yet all the evidence is that it evolves in a regular way according to certain laws. It would therefore seem reasonable to suppose that there are also laws governing the boundary conditions.
Any physical theory is always provisional, in the sense that it is only a hypothesis: No matter how many times the results of experiments agree with some theory, you can never be sure that the next time the result will not contradict the theory.
On the other hand, you can disprove a theory by finding even a single observation that disagrees with the predictions of the theory. As philosopher of science Karl Popper has emphasized, a good theory is characterized by the fact that it makes a number of predictions that could in principle be disproved or falsified by observation.
Each time new experiments are observed to agree with the predictions the theory survives, and our confidence in it is increased; but if ever a new observation is found to disagree, we have to abandon or modify the theory.
It has certainly been true in the past that what we call intelligence and scientific discovery have conveyed a survival advantage. It is not so clear that this is still the case: However, provided the universe has evolved in a regular way, we might expect that the reasoning abilities that natural selection has given us would be valid also in our search for a complete unified theory, and so would not lead us to the wrong conclusions.
A nearly identical quote can be found at the end of the second paragraph of his lecture [http: The ultimate objective test of free will would seem to be: Can one predict the behavior of the organism?
On the other hand, if one cannot predict the behavior, one could take that as an operational definition that the organism has free will … The real reason why we cannot predict human behavior is that it is just too difficult.
We already know the basic physical laws that govern the activity of the brain, and they are comparatively simple.
But it is just too hard to solve the equations when there are more than a few particles involved … So although we know the fundamental equations that govern the brain, we are quite unable to use them to predict human behavior.
This situation arises in science whenever we deal with the macroscopic system, because the number of particles is always too large for there to be any chance of solving the fundamental equations.
What we do instead is use effective theories. These are approximations in which the very large number of particles are replaced by a few quantities.
An example is fluid mechanics … I want to suggest that the concept of free will and moral responsibility for our actions are really an effective theory in the sense of fluid mechanics.
It may be that everything we do is determined by some grand unified theory. If that theory has determined that we shall die by hanging, then we shall not drown.
Here are seven things to know about measles symptoms and treatments. There was a time not so long ago when exhibiting measles symptoms was a near-ubiquitous part of childhood.
In the 4th century CE, Chinese alchemist Ko Hung wrote of the differences between smallpox and measles, and the disease was described in the 9th century by the famous Persian physician Rhazes.
There were major epidemics of the disease in the 11th and 12th centuries [ PDF ]. In the years before the first licensed measles vaccine appeared in the U.
The disease was a leading cause of death for children—and in some places without access to vaccinations and medical care, it still is.
Today, up to 5 percent of children in places without access to good medical care die of the measles annually. The CDC estimates that prior to the existence of the measles vaccine, there were between 3 and 4 million measles cases in the U.
In some years, fewer than people contract the disease in the U. The measles virus is considered one of the most contagious viruses around: Without vaccination, around 90 percent of people who are exposed to the virus will become infected.
The disease is caused by the spread of a type of virus called morbillivirus, which can be transmitted through the air via breathing, coughing, or sneezing.
A person exposed to measles will begin to show symptoms seven to 14 days after exposure. Common measles symptoms include coughing, congestion, fever, and most famously, a full-body skin rash.
But a third of measles cases involve complications ranging from diarrhea to pneumonia, brain swelling, and coma. Pneumonia causes around 60 percent of fatalities when it comes to measles complications.
Children under 5 are particularly at risk of getting complications and dying from the disease. One in 10 will contract an ear infection, possibly leading to permanent hearing damage, and one in 20 will get pneumonia.
One or two out of every kids who contract the measles will die, according to the CDC, many from pneumonia.
Experts recommend that children get their first dose of the MMR vaccine on their first birthday but not before. Then, they should get the second dose before they enter kindergarten.
In most cases, those two doses of the vaccine should be enough to give you immunity for life although some experts are now cautioning booster shots may be a good idea for some adults.
Thanks to effective vaccinations, as of , measles is no longer a threat in the U. In , the World Health Organization declared the disease to be eliminated across the entirety of North and South America.
Though home-grown measles has been eliminated, people in the U. In addition to inoculating individuals against diseases, the measles vaccine operates on the principle of herd immunity.
Since measles was declared eliminated in , there have been relatively few cases reported here, but a significant number of people have caught the disease in the past few years.
In , there were just 37 cases of measles reported in the U. That number was unusually high, and went down to cases the next year.
The CDC blames recent measles outbreaks on low rates of vaccination. One review of measles studies found that out of measles cases, almost 42 percent of patients had opted out of getting the vaccine for non-medical reasons.
Europe has also seen a surge in measles cases in the last few years. Between and , measles cases in Europe quadrupled, from cases to more than 21,, according to the World Health Organization.